An analysis of handling stress

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An analysis of handling stress

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the An analysis of handling stress Received Sep 27; Accepted Jan 7.

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An analysis of handling stress

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Figure S1: Comparison of normalized uniquely mapped reads among three runs.

All DETs in response to handling and confinement stress identified in this study. Identifying and characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate the development of strategies that aim to improve animal welfare and aquaculture production efficiency.

In this study, we used RNA-seq to identify transcripts which are differentially expressed in the rainbow trout liver in response to handling and confinement stress. These stressors were selected due to their relevance in aquaculture production.

Total RNA was extracted from the livers of individual fish in five tanks having eight fish each, including three tanks of fish subjected to a 3 hour handling and confinement stress and two control tanks.

Three sequencing runs were conducted to obtain a total of , reads which were mapped onto the previously generated stress reference transcriptome to identify differentially expressed transcripts DETs. Several gene ontology terms including transcription factor activity and biological process such as glucose metabolic process were enriched among these DETs.

Pathways involved in response to handling and confinement stress were implicated by mapping the DETs to reference pathways in the KEGG database. Customized Perl Scripts All customized scripts described in this paper are available from Dr.

Guangtu Gao or the corresponding author. Introduction Aquaculture is the fastest-growing animal food producing sector of agriculture. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is not only an important aquaculture species; it is also a primary research model for fish [1]. Fish under intensive rearing conditions experience various stressful conditions such as handling, crowding, sub-optimal water quality and temperature fluctuations.

Stress has been shown to have negative impacts on survival, growth, reproduction and fillet quality [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]therefore to improve production efficiency it is crucial to understand stress responses at the physiological and molecular levels.

Summary of Handling Stress

To this end stress responses have been extensively studied in fishes [4][10][11][12]. The stress response is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal HPI axis and release of catecholamines from chromaffin cells that induce many biochemical and physiological changes [4].

The advent of microarray technologies made it possible to observe global changes in gene expression in response to stress and these stress hormones [12][13][14]. For instance, a custom microarray was used to study gene expression changes after handling [15]and the 16K microarray for salmonid species was used to study the transcriptome response to heat stress in the red blood cells of rainbow trout [16].

Although the use of microarrays was a significant advance in exploring the transcriptome response to stress in rainbow trout [12]they have several limitations.

An analysis of handling stress

For example, detection is limited to the probes included in the microarray design, the detection range is limited by background signal and signal saturation, and differences in expression between paralogous genes is complicated by cross-hybridization, which is a particular problem for species such as the rainbow trout where more than half of the genes are thought to be duplicated due to a relatively recent whole genome duplication [17][18].

High-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized analyses of genomes and transcriptomes. Transcriptome sequencing, or RNA-seq, overcomes many inherent limitations of microarray technologies, and has emerged recently as a powerful tool to characterize gene expression profiles in both model and non-model species [19][20].

Application of RNA-seq has been used in rainbow trout by Morera et al. Although not in rainbow trout, RNA-seq has been used to investigate stress in fish, specifically heat stress in rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi [24] and catfish Ictalurus spp.

Our long term goal is to identify and characterize genes involved in general and specific stress responses in rainbow trout leading to management or breeding practices that improve production efficiency.

In the current study we sought to employ an RNA-seq approach to identify genes and pathways whose expression is altered due to handling and confinement stress. As a whole genome reference sequence has not yet been obtained for this species, we previously generated a stress reference transcriptome by sequencing transcripts from a pool of tissues from fish exposed to a variety of stressors [26].

In the current study, we mapped Illumina sequencing reads from liver transcripts obtained from fish exposed to handling and confinement stress onto the reference transcriptome to identify differentially expressed transcripts DETs.

Also, gene enrichment and pathways responding to handling and confinement stress were identified through gene ontology and KEGG annotation.Engineering Design and Thermal, Stress, Vibration and Fatigue Analysis to AWS, API and ASME Code to Ensure Structural Integrity.

Engineering Design and Thermal, Stress, Vibration and Fatigue Analysis to AWS, API and ASME Code to Ensure Structural Integrity * Does not include shipping, handling or tax. Read Designer's Lessons.

Click to. Welcome to the Handling stress benjaminpohle.com online course will help you to start managing stress effectively. Causes Of Stress Essay Examples.

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Stress is such a considerable part of everyone’s daily life. Between stress in the workplace, to issues at home, the effects of stress and how they can be detrimental to the individual are genuine. But not everyone is aware that there are right and wrong ways to handle stress.

Here the concepts of stress analysis will be stated in a finite element context. That means that the primary unknown will be the (generalized) displacements.

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