Birth and early years. Elizabeth Fry was born in Norwich, on the 21st of June, Bell was a descendant of the ancient family of the Barclays of Ury in Kincardineshire, and granddaughter of Robert Barclay, the well-known apologist of the Quakers. John Gurney of Earlham, born inwas educated in the principles of the Society of Friends, but as he advanced in life, and associated with persons of various Christian denominations, the strictness of his religious opinions was much relaxed, and he showed liberality of sentiment towards others, even if they were indifferent to all spiritual concerns.
In New France, the Jesuit missions had secured settlement for a brief period of time at the northern end of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, where the first Creoles were in fact born.
Another group of black or African immigrants made their way along the shores of the southeastern part of the North American continent. Like anything living within the island community setting, these individuals developed their own cultural practices which were often very unlike those of their neighbors.
Like the Jewish people I have reviewed, the New England to New York residing African and Caribbean settlers provide us with very limited documentation as to their cultural upbringings as colonial slaves.
These reflections upon African culture and how it made its way to the Colonies and States during the 17th and 18th centuries, as found in the medical journals, books, magazines and republished journals provide us with the best evidence for better understanding this important part of American history.
Such information in fact is often some of the best evidence out there as to what it was like to reside within a black or negro cultural setting. To better understand the life of a mountainman and trappers, we have to turn to their private diaries and reflections of the past, the poorer they are and the less talented a writer they be meaning the richer their stories will be.
Like the Creoles residing in Northern and later Southern New France, only to remove to the Louisiana territory, or the migration of Caribbean people to the southern states, or the young muslim slaves from Africa making their way first through Egypt and Sudan before coming to New York, Philadelphia, where ever, it helps to understand the cultural differences that exist between these different dark-skinned groups.
In order to review the African Colonial New World traditions, there are these specific resources that should be evaluated. The first of these are the original accounts of the settlement period regarding African slaves and New World residents.
These include official letters or reports, narratives, and some recounts of this period in American history by survivors of this period. Then there are those secondary sources out there which have to be considered for this work.
Then there are those retrospective, semi-anthropological narratives on the African people in North America, of two types: It is important to note that some of these histories may be very revealing, and at times are very culturally biased, to the same extent that such bias exists in the writings on Native American history noted elsewhere on this site.
As suggested by the content of much of my site, and the scarcity of more recently published histories, I like to stay away from the work of recent writers, who have often allowed their own personal culture to dictate what they have to say, how they are going to say it, and who to cite for these statements in order to avoid criticism, accusations of being too much outside the box, or in the worst of cases fabrication and plagiarism.
When I first proposed my Oregon Trail medicine project in to several midwestern Ivy League schools, their feedback was that this was already done, and when I reviewed the author they cited, I found his writings to be focused just on argonauts, not at all on the Pacific Northwest, with no mention of family health and no detailed medical or disease information, something superficial at most, designed for the 8th grade reader.
Thus came my work on the natives, trappers, mountainmen, fur traders, scouts, military physicians, Thomsonians, botanics, physomedical physicians, chronothermalists, domestic faith healers, Grahamanites, eclectics, homeopaths, hydropaths, climopaths, and even regulars on the Oregon Trail, no argonauts this time through.
None of the old timer scholars realized what had been missed. Since I work from the past forward with most of my medical history work, I spent time reviewing the historical writings, develop my theories, write my essay much of this 20 years agoteach what it is I have to say, and then review the findings of more recent writers.
This lengthy process of research I feel is why and how I uncovered things that other writers have missed. It is why and how I found the early Medical Repository description of African slaves who underwent the infibulation practiced by Middle Eastern-Sudanese sects, or how I found some of the earliest writings detailing the practice of many different unique healing philosophies in the Hudson Valley.
Forever at least since due to my experiences there has been this attitude about the Hudson Valley due to which the scholars from several New York and New England Ivy League schools have failed to understand and accept the importance of local, rural medical history, in particular in the Dutch-developed, multicultural Hudson Valley where the oldest newspaper currently in this country began its publication.
Ivy League scholars may be good, but unfortunately they are not thorough enough at times when it comes to completely understand early North American medical history—the history of medicine is not just the history of allopathic medicine, it is the history of culture, faith and belief systems.
There are a few avenues to take with this approach, beginning with the herbal information penned in a brief report dated to around by botanist in Pennsylvania.The Sonnets furnish us with no knowledge of Shakespeare's personal affairs, and only a meager basis even for gossip as to some of his experiences with men and women.
Another kind of inquiry has sought to discover in the sonnets not facts or incidents of Shakespeare's life, but indications of his emotional experiences. 3.____ The description of the “middle passage” by Alexander Falconbridge, who was a surgeon on several slave ships. 4. ____An advertisement for a slave auction in South Carolina in 5.
____The logbook from the Bristol slave ship the. Black Prince. kept by the Captain William Miller. 6.
during the middle passage? Document 7 Source: James Ramsay, Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of Source: Alexander Falconbridge, An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa (London, ). Student Analysis Alexander Falconbridge describes the reacon of enslaved Africans to their sale.
Olaudah Equiano wrote an account of the Middle Passage in his autobiography. Recent scholarship has called into question Equiano’s place of birth and whether his narrative is, in fact, a firsthand account.
take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Download the student.
Thomas Clarkson met Alexander Falcolnbridge, a former surgeon on board a slave ship. Falconbridge was willing to testify publicly about the way slaves were treated. He accompanied Clarkson to Liverpool where he acted as his bodyguard.
Clarkson later called him "an athletic and resolute-looking man". It is now the view of my ministry and the government that it would be inappropriate to comply with your recommendation and that of the standing committee on the Ombudsman." I have run into experiences where purchasers have not even realized they have to go out seven or eight days before the closing to list all the defects on this .