The United States involvement in the struggles of French Indochina began in at the Potsdam Conference and continued through many phases, culminating in a final withdrawal from Vietnam in
Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Here are some of the most common points of confusion, and explanations of why many in the Japanese American community use and avoid specific terminology when talking about our history.
Of thewho were imprisoned, about 80, were indeed American citizens by birthright, while the other roughly 40, were barred from citizenship until the law changed in The government knew there was no threat to the West Coast from Japanese Americans, but suppressed the evidence and forced thousands of citizens and legal residents to abandon their homes and their land without due process.
A type of prison where large numbers of people who are not soldiers are forced to live during a time of war, usually in very bad conditions. Indeed, the conditions were inhumane for many of those incarcerated. The facilities were surrounded by barbed wire, with guards pointing their guns inwards.
Many families were forced to live in horse stables, and many still remember the inescapable stench. The place was in semidarkness; light barely came through the dirty window on the other side of the entrance. Both rooms showed signs of a hurried whitewashing.
Spider webs, horse hair, and hay had been whitewashed with the walls.
Huge spikes and nails stuck out all over the walls. A two-inch layer of dust covered the floor.
Lordsburg was home to some of the most disturbing mistreatment of Japanese Americans. Colonel Clyde Lundy ordered many Issei first generation Japanese Americans, immigrants barred from citizenship to build military facilities and perform other types of slave labor in inhumane conditions, a clear violation of the Geneva Convention.
Possibly even more disturbing were the killings of multiple older Japanese American men incarcerated at Lordsburg who were accused of trying to escape.
Toshio Kobata and Hirota Isomura, both described as physically disabled and incapable of running, were both shot in the back and killed by a guard, who was found not guilty by an army court-martial board.
Article 54 of the Geneva Convention said that attempted escape could not be punishable by death. Sadly, these men may have been targeted for protesting the inhumane treatment. Roosevelt in a note to the military Joint Board on August 10, Yes, FDR used the term when discussing the issue, and records show that so did most government authorities and congressional officials.
They were the Nisei, second generation Japanese Americans, many of whom had little familiarity with Japan.
The other one-third were the Issei, the first generation immigrants who were barred from citizenship and even owning land in many places because of discriminatory laws at the time. And yet despite this mistreatment, around 33, Japanese Americans enlisted and fought for the U.
Looking further back, Japanese Americans had already been residing and raising families in the U. My great grandfather, for example, came with his family in to serve as a pastor at a church he founded for Japanese American Episcopalians. His daughter my grandmother and other second generation kids grew up almost like any other American child.
However, unlike many of her childhood friends, she had to receive her high school diploma while in an American concentration camp. Is it inappropriate or offensive to use historical euphemisms at all? Yes and no, depending on the context provided. We should remember to critically analyze the euphemisms the government employed to describe the Incarceration of Japanese Americans, and also challenge that language, so that we do not obscure or distort our history.
This piece only shows the basics of why these terms are so problematic, but it can serve as a reminder for people to think about how we frame our history.
Look for similar ways that euphemistic or propagandist language is applied to how we discuss American Muslims and Muslims around the world, and catch warning signs when it seems that history may repeat itself. Do you have information you want to share with HuffPost?Feb 18, · Joseph Shoji Lachman is a 4th/5th generation Japanese American who works full time in helping API communities participate in Democracy at Asian Counseling and Referral Service in .
Korematsu v. United States, U.S. (), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order , which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of their citizenship. In a 6–3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional.
Many Americans worried that citizens of Japanese ancestry would act as spies or saboteurs for the Japanese government. Fear — not evidence — drove the U.S.
to place over , Japanese-Americans in concentration camps for the duration of WWII. Over , United States citizens were. Feb 18, · Joseph Shoji Lachman is a 4th/5th generation Japanese American who works full time in helping API communities participate in Democracy at Asian Counseling and Referral Service in .
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Many Americans worried that citizens of Japanese ancestry would act as spies or saboteurs for the Japanese government. Fear — not evidence — drove the U.S. to place over , Japanese-Americans in concentration camps for the duration of WWII. Over , United States citizens were.