Features and Benefits Comparisons to relevant norm groups that provide an objective lens through which to examine student writing.
Consistency of performance is also established through repeated observations. Data-collection methods can take many forms. Each has advantages and disadvantages.
The choice among them is usually The choice of assessment form should be consistent with what one wants to measure and to infer. However, to serve the intended purpose, the choice of assessment form should be consistent with what one wants to measure and to infer.
It is critical that the data and their method of collection yield information with confidence levels consistent with the consequences of its use. Public confidence in educational data and their use is related to technical quality. This public confidence is influenced by the extent to which technical quality has been considered by educators and policy makers and the skill with which they communicate with the public about it.
Assessment Standard D Assessment practices must be fair.
Assessment tasks must be reviewed for the use of stereotypes, for assumptions that reflect the perspectives or experiences of a particular group, for language that might be offensive to a particular group, and for other features that might distract students from the intended task.
Large-scale assessments must use statistical techniques to identify potential bias among subgroups. Assessment tasks must be appropriately modified to accommodate the needs of students with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, or limited English proficiency.
Assessment tasks must be set in a variety of contexts, be engaging to students with different interests and experiences, and must not assume the perspective or experience of a particular gender, racial, or ethnic group.
It follows that the processes used to assess student achievement must be fair to all students. This is not only an ethical requirement but also a measurement requirement.
If assessment results are more closely related to gender or ethnicity than to the preparation received or the science understanding and ability being assessed, the validity of the assessment process is questionable.
Those who plan and implement science assessments must pay deliberate attention to issues of fairness. Page 86 Share Cite Suggested Citation: National Science Education Standards. The National Academies Press.
Statistical techniques require that both sexes and different racial and ethnic backgrounds be included in the development of large-scale assessments.
Bias can be determined with some certainty through the combination of statistical evidence and expert judgment. For instance, if an exercise to assess understanding of inertia using a flywheel results in differential performance between females and males, a judgment that the exercise is biased might be plausible based on the assumption that males and females have different experiences with flywheels.
Whether assessments are large scale or teacher conducted, the principle of fairness requires that data-collection methods allow students with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, or limited English proficiency to demonstrate the full extent of their science knowledge and skills.
The requirement that assessment exercises be authentic and thus in context increases the likelihood that all tasks have some degree of bias for some population of students. Some contexts will have more appeal to males and others to females.
If, however, assessments employ a variety of tasks, the collection will be "equally unfair" to all. This is one way in which the deleterious effects of bias can be avoided. Assessment Standard E The inferences made from assessments about student achievement and opportunity to learn must be sound.
When making inferences from assessment data about student achievement and opportunity to learn science, explicit reference needs to be made to the assumptions on which the inferences are based.
Even when assessments are well planned and the quality of the resulting data high, the interpretations of the empirical evidence can result in quite different conclusions.
Making inferences involves looking at empirical data through the lenses of theory, personal beliefs, and personal experience. Making objective inferences is extremely difficult, partly because individuals are not always aware of their assumptions.
Consequently, confidence in the validity of inferences requires explicit reference to the assumptions on which those inferences are based.Assessments are ageappropriate, ongoing, aligned with curriculum standards, and comprehensive.
Comprehensive Assessment— The range and scope of information and the type of data collected are based on the child’s social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development. ACTFL Writing Proficiency Assessments The Business Writing Test (BWT) and the general Writing Proficiency Test (WPT) are standardized tests for the global assessment of functional writing ability in .
benjaminpohle.comrds •. Assessment Resources. Writing (includes Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects) connections between P21 and the standards, along with the examples provided later in this document. 10 benjaminpohle.com P21,benjaminpohle.com .
The ISTEP+ Grade 10 Math Assessment is based on standards adopted in ; the Grade 10 English Assessment is based on standards adopted in Reading, writing and math are essential life skills, and students must demonstrate a basic understanding of English/language arts and mathematics as part of the requirements for graduation.
Department of Education; Lee Anne Larsen, Literacy Specialist, Maine Department of Education; and Marty Gephart, Reading/Writing Assessment Coordinator, Vermont Department of Education (retired).
A performance based assessment requires employees to prove or demonstrate that they have mastered the area being evaluated. Rather than traditional means of evaluation, like scales, rating systems.