The mountainous terrain and jungles make land invasion from North Asia difficult. The Chinese conquered and occupied Vietnam for almost years, but were eventually driven out, and failed to recapture it in subsequent attempts. The Chinese made several attempts to invade Burma but were stopped by disease and terrain.
In analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiranshowed them to have been made 1. This is the oldest evidence for the presence of early man in Indonesia. Flores Man seems to have shared the island with modern Homo sapiens until only 12, years ago, when they became extinct.
In stone tools were discovered on Flores dating from 1 million years ago, which is the oldest evidence anywhere in the world that early man had the technology to make sea crossings at this very early time.
Early humans travelled by sea and spread from mainland Asia eastward to New Guinea and Australia.
Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45, years ago. Some of these practices remain in areas including the Batak areas of Sumatra, Toraja in Sulawesi, and several islands in Nusa Tenggara.
Early Indonesians were animists who honoured the spirits of the dead believing their souls or life force could still help the living. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE,  allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE.
These kingdoms little more than collections of villages subservient to petty chieftains evolved with their own ethnic and tribal religions. Java's hot and even temperature, abundant rain and volcanic soil, was perfect for wet rice cultivation.
Such agriculture required a well-organized society in contrast to dry-field rice which is a much simpler form of cultivation that doesn't require an elaborate social structure to support it.
Early kingdoms[ edit ] Indonesia like much of Southeast Asia was influenced by Indian culture. In India 's earliest epic, the RamayanaSugriva, the chief of Rama 's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.
South Indian culture was spread to Southeast Asia by the south Indian Pallava dynasty in the 4th and 5th century.
A number of Hindu and Buddhist states flourished and then declined across Indonesia. Three rough plinths dating from the beginning of the 4th century are found in KutaiEast Kalimantannear Mahakam River. The plinths bear an inscription in the Pallava script of India reading "A gift to the Brahmin priests".
One such early kingdom was Tarumanagarawhich flourished between and CE. Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakartaits 5th-century King, Purnawarmanestablished the earliest known inscriptions in Javathe Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor.
And other inscriptions called Pasar Awi inscription and Muncul inscription. On this monument, King Purnawarman inscribed his name and made an imprint of his footprints, as well as his elephant's footprints. The accompanying inscription reads, "Here are the footprints of King Purnavarman, the heroic conqueror of the world".
This inscription is written in Pallava script and in Sanskrit and is still clear after years. Purnawarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement purpose.
In his stone inscriptions, Purnawarman associated himself with Vishnuand Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the 7th to 11th centuries was dominated by Srivijaya based in Sumatra and Sailendra that dominated southeast Asia based in Java and constructed Borobudurthe largest Buddhist monument in the world.
The history prior of the 14th and 15th centuries is not well known due to the scarcity of evidence. By the 15th century, two major states dominated this period; Majapahit in East Java, the greatest of the pre-Islamic Indonesian states, and Malacca on the west coast of the Malay Peninsulaarguably one of the greatest of the Muslim trading empires,  this marked the rise of Muslim states in Indonesian archipelago.
Medang Empire or previously known as Mataram Kingdom was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty later by Sanjaya dynasty. Between the 8th and 10th centuries.
An eruption of Mount Merapi volcano and a political pressure from Sailendran based in Srivijaya Empire may have caused the move. The first king of Mataram was Sri Sanjaya and left inscriptions in stone. Dharmawangsa ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in In the period between the late 8th century to the mid-9th century, the kingdom saw the blossoming of classical Javanese art and architecture, testified by the rapid growth of temple construction dotted the landscape of its heartland in Mataram Kedu and Kewu Plain.
Later in its history, the dynasty divided into two dynasties based on their own religion, the Buddhist and Shivaist dynasties. Civil war was unavoidable and the outcome was Medang Empire divided into two powerful kingdom based on region and religion.
The hostility between them didn't end until in when the Sailendran based in Srivijaya kingdom incited rebellion by Wurawari, vassal of Medang kingdom and sacked Shivaist dynasty's capital in WatugaluhJava.
Srivijaya kingdom rose into undisputed hegemonic Empire in the era as the result. Yet the Shivaist dynasty survived and successfully reclaimed the east Java in then descended to Kahuripan kingdom led by Airlangga son of Udayana of Bali. Srivijaya The empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia.indonesia vs malaysia, a comparison Population and land size: Indonesia has a land area of million acres, housing a whopping million individuals, compared to the 30 million large population living on 81 million acres of Malaysian soil.
Comparison chart Indonesian languages. Below is a chart of several Indonesian languages. Most of them belong to Austronesian languages family. While there have been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as languages and which ones should be classified as dialects, the chart confirms that most have similarities, yet are not mutually comprehensible.
Thailand boasts some of the better public transport in the region so getting around can be fast and affordable. If time is limited, stick to one part of the country. 3 weeks on Thailand. Indonesia (/ ˌ ɪ n d ə ˈ n iː ʒ ə / Bali, and finally the tropical Savanna climate, found in isolated locations of Central Java, lowland East Java, coastal southern Papua and smaller islands to the east of Lombok.
However, particularly in comparison to the Middle benjaminpohle.comment: Unitary presidential constitutional republic. Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand,  connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus Geography. Khao Sok National Park, Surat Thani.
Southern Thailand is on the Malay Peninsula, with an area of around 70, km 2 (27, sq mi), bounded to the north by. United States is about 5 times bigger than Indonesia..
Indonesia is approximately 1,, sq km, while United States is approximately 9,, sq km. Meanwhile, the population of Indonesia is ~ million people (66 million more people live in United States).