Cross cultural depression

Sociologists study how people get along together in groups. They study culture, social institutions and they affect individuals.

Cross cultural depression

Advanced Search Abstract The debate on the role of culture on psychiatric epidemiology has evolved considerably in the past two decades.

There is now a general consensus that the integration of the universalist and culturally relativist approaches, and their methodologies, is required to generate a truly international psychiatric epidemiology. The large body of research investigating the influence of culture on the epidemiology of depression has produced a number of key findings: The diagnostic differentiation between depression and anxiety in general health care settings is not Cross cultural depression valid.

Culturally appropriate terminology for depression can be identified and their use may improve levels of recognition and treatment compliance. It is also evident that culture is only one factor in the difference between, and within, human societies which has a bearing on the epidemiology of depression.

Other factors, which may interact with culture, such as gender and income inequality, are major risk factors for depression. Future international research must focus on two themes: The debate on the extent and nature of the influence of cultural variables on psychiatric syndromes and mental health services has been extensively covered elsewhere 1 —3.

This approach underpins the bulk of epidemiological research world-wide. As a result of this debate, culture became firmly ensconced as a key variable in psychiatric epidemiology, particularly when the research was based in non-Western societies. These theories formed the basis of a series of ethnographic and epidemiological studies on depression in two, apparently culturally different, developing societies Zimbabwe and India.

This article uses this research evidence to question the actual contribution of culture on the international epidemiology of depression. The article proposes that culture is only one variable, and arguably not the most important one, which needs to be taken into account in international epidemiology of mental disorders.

The health systems model provides a more relevant and pragmatic framework for the investigation of mental disorders from an international perspective 4.

The relevance of cross-cultural psychiatry: It is not accidental that the recent surge of interest in culture as an independent variable in the design and interpretation of psychiatric research coincides with the spectacular demographic change in the ethnic composition of many industrialised countries.

It is common to see studies from vast, and hugely diverse, countries such as India or China being used to suggest that the findings are representative of the culture of the entire nation. Such naive assumptions have greatly limited the value of cross-cultural studies where the choice of country settings are used as a means of ensuring representativeness of cultural diversity.

Research from Western cultures is considered to be of international significance whereas research from non-industrialised countries is of interest for its demonstration of the influence of culture on psychiatric disorders 5. The main limitation of cross-cultural psychiatry, of course, is that it fails to recognize that cultures are dynamic, complex social constructs which defy easy definition or measurement.

This suggests that cultures are ever-changing; herein lies the key factor which influences the role of culture in international epidemiology. Globalization has been phenomenal in its impact on culture; no longer are cultures living in relative isolation from one another so that attitudes, practices and beliefs evolve separately in different cultures.

Cross cultural depression

Instead, cultures are integrating, with values and beliefs from one culture finding new homes in other cultures. While the process of globalization may work in diverse ways, in reality, the dominant cultures are those of industrialised societies because much of the mechanisms of globalization, such as the media, are largely controlled by these societies.

The homogenization of cultures across the non-industrialised world in the past decade is a marker of the vulnerability of cultures to the onslaught of modern marketing and global media networks.

In the face of this reality, one of the key rationales behind cross-cultural psychiatry is becoming rapidly redundant.

Introduction

Thus, this is an opportune time to consider a paradigm shift from cross-cultural psychiatry to an international psychiatry as discussed later.

At this point, however, it would be fair to give due justice to the large and important body of work generated in the field of cross-cultural psychiatry.Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression Janis H.

Jenkins Case Western Reserve University Arthur Kleinman Byron J. Good Harvard Medical School CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION: INTRODUCTION In this chapter we examine key questions that arise from a cross-cultural ap­ proach to the study of depression.

Cultural differences in help-seeking behavior may influence the treatment of depression. For example, non-Western individuals frequently use indigenous (from their own culture) practitioners for treatment of "illness" and Western .

Cultural differences in help-seeking behavior may influence the treatment of depression.

Cultural Context of Depression

For example, non-Western individuals frequently use indigenous (from their own culture) practitioners for treatment of "illness" and Western-trained physicians for treating "disease". Kirmayer L: Beyond the "New Cross-cultural Psychiatry": Cultural Biology, Discursive Psychology and the Ironies of Globalization.

Transcultural Psychiatry.

Cross cultural depression

, 43 (1): / View Article PubMed Google Scholar; Kleinman A, Good B: Culture and Depression. Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression Janis H.

Jenkins Case Western Reserve University Arthur Kleinman Byron J. Good Harvard Medical School CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION: INTRODUCTION In this chapter we examine key questions that arise from a cross-cultural ap­ proach to the study of depression.

The cross-cultural applicability of rating instruments developed in one language with only one cultural group is an important issue in both research and clinical settings where these instruments might be used. We examined the cross-cultural applicability of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in Japan.

Sociology of Depression – Effects of Culture