It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom. There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away.
See the software for automated testing of spoken English produced by Versant. Reading At a basic level it is simple to assess reading comprehension in much the same way as it is possible to assess listening comprehension, e.
If well designed, this form of assessment works effectively and instant feedback can be offered to the student, which has a beneficial effect on learning. The main ways of assessing reading skills can be summarised as follows: Multiple-choice, drag-and-drop, and fill-in-the-blank tests with single-words or very short sentences, but these types of tests cannot easily assess more open-ended aspects such as the ability to infer; and in multiple-choices tests students can get the answers right by guesswork.
Completely open-ended answers cannot be assessed. Single-word answers or answers consisting of very short sentences can be assessed to a limited extent. More extended reading tasks are harder to set on computer.
On-screen reading of longer texts is in any case inadvisable. Web guru Jakob Nielsen writes: Even users who don't know this human factors research usually say that they feel unpleasant when reading online text.
As a result, people don't want to read a lot of text from computer screens: We also know that users don't like to scroll: Instead, users scan text and pick out keywords, sentences, and paragraphs of interest while skipping over those parts of the text they care less about.
Writing for the WebAlertbox, 15 March More recent research by Nielsen, in which the iPad and Kindle were examined, showed that The iPad measured at 6. However, the difference between the two devices was not statistically significant because of the data's fairly high variability.
Thus, the only fair conclusion is that we can't say for sure which device offers the fastest reading speed. In any case, the difference would be so small that it wouldn't be a reason to buy one over the other.
But we can say that tablets still haven't beaten the printed book: See Nielsen's other articles on Writing for the Web. Extended texts are more likely to be print-based unless they are in hypertext format, i. In the case of hypertext, the computer may be a suitable medium for assessing information-gathering techniques.
The skills needed to track down documents, follow links within and between them and find specific extracts are of increasing importance in academic life, in commercial settings and in leisure time.
These skills are, to an extent, generic rather than specific to any given language although learners do need to know key terms involved in searching for information. Many teachers are aware of the need to ensure that learners are equipped with the appropriate language skills for Web browsing, e.
Writing Limited assessment of writing skills is possible. It is fairly straightforward to program computers to assess the accuracy of single words and short sentences typed at the keyboard, and work on parsing students' typed responses, diagnosing errors and providing appropriate feedback is in progress - see Section 8 in Module 3.
There are also features in modern computer software that can be used within the assessment process, such as spellcheckers to enable self-assessment of spelling, and also grammar and style checkers, which - although still imperfect - do pick up many errors that students can use to self-correct, such as errors of gender or number: As for assessing continuous pieces of text, some progress has been made in developing programs that can roughly grade short essays.
Screenshot, Microsoft Word Spellchecker The main use of computers in the assessment of writing is, currently, the use of on-screen marking as described in Section 3. You can read more about grammar and style checkers in: Section 7, Module 3. Computer-based exercises and tests often take the same kind of format.
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The essential difference between an exercise and a test is the purpose to which it is put. An exercise usually offers instant feedback to the learner and an opportunity to correct any errors that are made, whereas a test may offer little feedback to the learner apart from a raw score at the end of the test, or no feedback at all, e.
Exercises are usually designed to offer the learner practice in specific areas and to motivate and encourage, whereas tests are usually designed to assess the learner's progress in specific areas, i. But sometimes these distinctions become blurred.
The main kinds of tests include: These are designed mainly to sort students into teaching groups so that they are approximately at the same level when they join the group. Placement tests may take the form of adaptive tests see below.
These are designed to enable the learner or teacher to identify specific strengths and weaknesses so that remedial action can be take.Despite the need to use and develop their English-language proficiency, English-language learners (ELLs) are often quiet during classroom discussions.
The Response Protocol was developed to help teachers elicit and support the oral interactions of ELL students. Journal of Studies in Education ISSN , Vol. 2, No. 1 benjaminpohle.com Acquiring the Language Naturally Helps Adult Learners Second Language Learning.
As soon as children begin to use language — that is, they both understand words and start to use them — they also have the ability to pretend.
O ne of the most consistent things I was warned about many years ago when my husband and I decided to both speak German with our swaddled babe in arms was language delay. Everyone told me not to worry if my son didn’t start speaking until later, as bilingual children are known to start speaking later and to be a bit linguistically confused at first.
2- Definitions of L2. It is crucial here to mention the difference between a Second and a Foreign language, which are both referred to as L2. People who are living in an English-speaking community/country are learning English as their SECOND language.
"The learner of the second language is surrounded by stimulation, both visual and auditory, in the target language and thus has .